What is cement made of

What is cement made of

Most of us are familiar with the sturdy construction materials of concrete, mortar, and plaster, but did you know that they all contain a magic ingredient called cement?

Cement is a critical element in various construction products we use daily. But have you ever thought about what exactly is in cement? Fear not, as in this article, I have collected some interesting information to help you understand how cement is made and what it’s made of.

Moreover, there’s also an article on this site that talks about the difference between cement and concrete, which often need clarification with each other. So, let’s dive in and discover how cement plays a crucial role in making our homes, buildings, and roads sturdy and safe!

When was cement invented?

Cement and concrete have been used for construction for thousands of years, with evidence of their use dating back to ancient civilizations. While the Portland cement widely used today was patented in 1824, other cement forms have been used throughout history.

For example, the Romans used concrete to construct impressive structures like the Pantheon. It’s also worth noting that the Egyptians were known to have used cement in their construction projects. Before cement, other materials like clay and fiber were used to create building coatings.

Despite its age, cement remains a highly versatile and popular building material. Countless examples of modern concrete structures showcase the material’s versatility and durability.

While it’s true that beauty is subjective, there’s no denying the impact that concrete has had on modern architecture. Given its long history and continued use in construction, it’s safe to say that cement will remain a staple building material for years to come.

The burning process of cement happens in a kiln

How to make cement

To make cement from limestone and clay, the first step is to grind these ingredients separately until they become a fine powder. Then, they are mixed in precise proportions and ground together to produce a uniform mixture. This mixture is then transferred to a kiln and heated to around 1450°C.

As the mixture heats up, the chemical reactions between the ingredients take place, resulting in the formation of new compounds. The most crucial compound formed during this process is known as clinker. The clinker is then cooled and ground into a fine powder, the grey powder we are more familiar with.

When the cement powder is introduced to water, it forms a paste that binds together the fine and rough aggregates, forming concrete. This process is known as hydration. When mixed with aggregates, the paste will cure over time, resulting in a hardened and durable material.

The process of burning cement in a kiln is a crucial step in the production of cement. The kiln must be carefully controlled to maintain the right temperature and conditions throughout the process. This helps to produce a high-quality product that meets the required specifications.

It’s unfortunate that although cement is a versatile and valuable material, the process of producing it is one of the most polluting aspects of the concrete industry.

However, there is a growing trend towards developing “green concrete,” which involves replacing some cement with by-products from other industries such as steel.

This approach reduces the amount of cement used and repurposes waste materials that would otherwise go to landfills. While green concrete is still in its early stages, it holds great promise for creating a more sustainable and environmentally friendly built environment.

How is cement made step by step?

The process of cement manufacturing is an intricate and multi-faceted procedure that involves several steps.

The first step in this process is the procurement of raw materials from open quarries. These raw materials can include limestone, clay, and various other minerals.

Once the raw materials are obtained, they are crushed into smaller pieces using specialized crushers. The crushed raw materials are then ground into smaller particles to ensure a uniform mixture before moving on to the next step.

The next step in the cement manufacturing process involves burning the mixture in a cement kiln at an incredibly high temperature of 2700°F. During this process, the ground clay and limestone slowly transform into cement clinker. This process is crucial as it helps form the final product.

Once the cement clinker is formed, it is cooled and ground into a fine powder. This fine powder is then stored in silos until it is ready to be shipped to various construction sites. The cement is tested at different stages of production to ensure that it meets specific requirements before it is transported.

It is important to note that the cement manufacturing process has several variations depending on the type of cement produced and the manufacturer’s specific requirements. For example, some manufacturers may add other materials such as fly ash, slag, or gypsum to the mixture to achieve specific properties or characteristics.

If you want to learn more about the cement manufacturing process, I suggest conducting further research online. A wealth of information is available on this topic, which can help you gain a deeper understanding of how cement is made.

Portland cement

Let’s delve into the world of Portland cement and explore its various types and properties. While we won’t delve into the nitty-gritty of its chemistry, it’s important to note that different types of Portland cement that cater to builders’ varying needs and requirements are available.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has classified Portland cement types into five categories. These include ordinary, modified, high-early-strength, low-heat, and sulfate-resistant. However, it is worth mentioning that other types of cement are available, such as colored cement and masonry cement, that are not included in this list.

It’s crucial to understand that each Portland cement type has unique properties and characteristics that make it suitable for different applications. For instance, high-early-strength Portland cement is ideal for projects that require quick setting, while sulfate-resistant cement is the go-to choice for constructions in marine environments.

If you plan to use cement products, knowing the different types of cement available in the market is essential to make an informed decision. You may also want to consider colored cement, which can add aesthetic value to your project.

As for the price, the cost of Portland cement may vary depending on your location. However, the price range of Portland cement generally falls between $50 to $70 for every 1000lb. The price may differ slightly if you’re looking for smaller bags or buying from different sellers. But, by inquiring around, you can find a good deal.

Lastly, while Portland cement is the most commonly used type of cement, it’s worth noting that other types of cement can offer additional benefits and unique properties. Thus, it’s essential to understand the different types of cement and their properties to make an informed and wise decision.

Different types of cement mixes

The construction industry relies heavily on cement, which comes in various types depending on its intended application.

Concrete mix, for instance, is a well-known type of cement mix widely used in building projects worldwide. It is composed of cement, sand, rough aggregates, and water and is highly durable and robust, making it an ideal building material for constructing roads, driveways, houses, and other structures. 

Apart from concrete mixes, other cement mixes are commonly used in construction. Mortar mix, for example, is created by combining sand, cement, and water. This type of cement mix is used for adhering materials like bricks together. Mortar is typically applied between the bricks to create a strong bond and hold them together.

Another type of cement mix is the plaster mix, which is used indoors and outdoors. Plaster mix is created by adding cement to other materials and is ideal for finishing walls and ceilings. This cement mix provides a smooth and even finish and is often used to create decorative elements on walls.

Finally, there are rendering mixes like stucco, which are mainly used for exterior surfaces. Stucco is a mixture of cement, sand, and water applied to exterior walls to create a textured finish. It is a highly durable and weather-resistant material that can withstand harsh weather conditions. 

In conclusion, the construction industry relies heavily on cement mixes for various applications. Cement mixes play a crucial role in the construction process, whether for building structures, creating decorative elements, or finishing surfaces.


You should now better understand what cement is made of and how it’s produced. I was looking for a general idea of the process and how it works.

Cement is essential in many construction projects, such as masonry, concrete work, plastering, rendering, and even decorative work.

It’s used as outdoor building panels and between ceramic tiles as grout and glue under them. The list goes on.