The problem for us living in old houses with old concrete floors and decks is that they can be pretty plain. The same goes for the newer houses with a safe approach to design.
So what do we do when we have an old slab of concrete that we hate to look at with passion as it is boring and grey? Or if we like decorating and always look for new ways to decorate our living spaces.
One thing that comes to mind for decorating it and one technique suitable for that is etching. There are two types of etching when it comes to concrete that I can think of, by machine or by acid.
Since the operations are quite different, let us break them apart and concentrate on acid etching in this post. The blog post for our mechanical alternative is engraving the concrete with a machine.
Here we will concentrate more on our chemical technique since we need different measures for these jobs.
Before we start, let us take a look at how etching concrete is defined.
Etching concrete and what is our objective
Etching concrete is a finishing technique that applies an imprint of something into the concrete. The image can be abstract, symmetrical, or simple impressions of objects like leaves or other plants.
A number of techniques have been used for years to create this simple, and many times, free addition to your concrete patio, walkway, or slab. At simplest, etching with acid is spraying or spreading it with different tools on the bare concrete floor.
Etching concrete can be done in three different ways.
- When it hasn’t cured, an imprint is made into the concrete at the end of a concrete slab pour.
- Engraving cured concrete with a machine.
- Etching cured concrete with acid.
Whether an imprint is applied or a chemical transfer occurs, wet concrete imprints are probably the easiest and least dangerous of concrete etching methods.
Stamping concrete after it has been poured
Concrete stamping is a popular way to leave marks on wet concrete. The same can be done with a pattern roller or any other imaginative way to leave a mark. We probably want consistency, so it might be good to have most of the slabs done in the same way.
How deep the stamp is will define how much texture there is on the surface. Pigments can be used to enhance surface colors. Personally, I think it’s great on outdoor decks.
Depending on the size of the slab or object being stamped, it might be a really beginner-friendly approach as well. No electrical tools and no dangerous chemicals.
Concrete stamping is something that has been gathering wind for some time and is becoming more and more popular. If you follow social media you might notice a lot of material being shared about stamped concrete.
Give that link a click if it sounds like something you could enjoy.
Engraving with machine
The second way is etching concrete without acid which can be achieved by engraving concrete with different machines. This is another simple yet, effective way to decorate.
Personally, I think it’s more challenging than using acid in the more complex patterns you’re after. More details mean more need for attention and more attention means more time and things to go wrong.
There was a link earlier, but let me describe it here a little as well. You can engrave concrete with rotation tools like Dremel and other tools that are mentioned in the linked article.
It is a precision job, but you can achieve magnificent patterns if you have patience.
I’d recommend it to anyone interested in working with tools.
Acid etching or staining
The third way is using acids to leave marks on the concrete. This is a chemical reaction in the concrete surface so in my book, it’s as challenging as the previous mechanical grinding.
It’s also important to notice that acid needs to be neutralized after a certain time has passed, unlike stamping or engraving. Otherwise, end result might change.
If we are doing our own project, choosing a pattern that fits the floor size and is reusable is essential for the project cost. If we are working for a customer it might be wise to lead them in that direction.
This follows the same principles as acid staining does. Depending on the acid type, you can achieve different colors when it reacts with the concrete.
It’s a beautiful way to do floors and it’s that with etching as well.
Etching concrete with muriatic acid
Acid staining and etching are the same things at the root level for me. Again what makes the difference is the goal or end result we aim for.
Staining is like its describing word, leaving stains of different volumes while etching might be more intended to leave a pattern. For leaving patterns, different templates for etching can be bought online or from stores. Just make sure they are for acid etching.
In this article, we’ll concentrate more on the acid way of etching. There are many different products used for this, muriatic acid is only one of them.
As stated before, acid staining or etching concrete is probably the most dangerous and difficult concrete etching method by using a series of chemical pattern transfers or rubs to imprint a design or shape on the concrete.
The design is then washed with muriatic acid. The untouched concrete is etched, while the concrete affected by the imposing pattern template protects the concrete from the muriatic acid and leaves an impression.
To break this job down into steps:
- Before etching, the concrete surface must be clean.
- The etched pattern must be planned out with the templates we have at hand. It might be easiest to break the job into rows/squares.
- After patterns are planned out, use acid to etch with proper safety measures.
- Neutralize the acid.
- After the whole surface is done, clean it and coat it.
Acid etching can create new colors and patterns
While this last method of concrete etching is the most striking, particularly because you can add other textures and colors to create a truly unique patio or driveway, it’s probably not a good DIY project for first-timers.
Serious chemical burns can occur and dangerous vapors can overwhelm someone without the proper safety equipment. Hiring a professional concrete etcher can really pay off in the long run.
It might also be true for the colors and patterns to turn out the way you planned. Acid must affect the surface to turn into a specific color for a certain time.
While it’s true that professionals might get the desired result faster, you can also experiment with a clock to get the desired result. Time out the acid and you can see how it will turn out after x amount of time has passed.
Remember to use safety gear
Still, be it mechanical or chemical etching, proper safety gear is a must. Sawing or grinding concrete, safety glass, ear protection, and good gloves are mandatory.
When working with chemicals, it’s good to check if there is gear that protects against them like different sorts of rubber and eye protection. Some chemicals are bad to breathe so a mask would also be proper.
That said, DIY homeowners will probably have a good shot at imprinting wet concrete better than dry. Many concrete stamps, rollers, and other neat designs can be transferred to partially dried concrete. Also, different pigments can be used to color the concrete as well.
Still, if you’re brave and want to adventure I’d say give acid etching concrete a try. Buy good equipment and try it out on a small test sample first. If it works out well, then we can go large. Testing is always good when trying new things, not jumping straight to the doing part.
Acid etching is one way to decorate and it has been quite popular for a long time. Mechanical etching is the other way to go if you want to engrave concrete.
It’s good to remember that as acid etching is a chemical reaction in the concrete, you can do it only for a limited time on the same surface. When you put the acid on the surface, it will react with the minerals on the concrete slowly using them up.
Another way will be to use water-based stains or film-forming ones if you run out of options with acid. No matter what you choose you should properly plan and practice before moving on to the execution part.
Whatever the choice, these are viable ways to make the boring old grey look new again. Here is an article about acid stain colors for reference. As acid staining is a chemical reaction, the color chart is limited by that.
Combining acid staining and penetrating stains is also possible to create wider colors. As you can see, only imagination is the limit.